Please forgive the slight inconvenience in creating a new account. Due to juvenile delinquents spamming garbage to the site, we had to install a "Captcha", which can differentiate a spam bot from a human. Once you open your account, confirm it by returning the email, and identifying yourself, we will give you edit privileges. Just request them by leaving a message at click here.


From English WikiChiro
Jump to: navigation, search
Alternative medical systems - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Category:Alternative medical systems
  2. Category:Mind-body interventions
  3. Biologically based therapy
  4. Manipulative and body-based methods
  5. Energy therapy
See also

See also Ayurveda in America

Ayurveda (Sanskrit Āyurveda आयुर्वेद, "life-knowledge"; English pronunciation /ˌ.ərˈvdə/[1]) or Ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional medicine native to the Indian subcontinent and a form of alternative medicine. The oldest known Ayurvedic texts are the Suśrutha Saṃhitā and the Charaka Saṃhitā. These Classical Sanskrit texts are among the foundational and formally compiled works of Ayurveda.

By the medieval period, Ayurvedic practitioners developed a number of medicinal preparations and surgical procedures for the treatment of various ailments.[2] Practices that are derived from Ayurvedic medicine are regarded as part of complementary and alternative medicine,[3] and along with Siddha Medicine and Traditional Chinese medicine, forms the basis for systems medicine.[4]

Recognized by World health organization (WHO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and others.[5] In last few decades Ayurveda has spread around the world.[6][7] However, Concerns have been raised about Ayurvedic products; US studies showed that up to 20% of Ayurvedic U.S. and Indian-manufactured patent medicines sold via internet contained toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic.[5][8]

Eight components of Ayurveda

In classical Sanskrit literature, Ayurveda was called "the science of eight components" (Sanskrit aṣṭāṅga अष्टांग), a classification that became canonical for Ayurveda:[9][10]

Principles and terminology

Several philosophers in India combined religion and traditional medicine—notable examples being that of Hinduism and Ayurveda. Shown in the image is the philosopher Nagarjuna—known chiefly for his doctrine of the Madhyamaka (middle path)—who wrote medical works The Hundred Prescriptions and The Precious Collection, among others.[11]
File:Ayurveda humors.svg
The three doṣas and the 5 elements from which they are composed.

There are two ways in which to approach Ayurvedic principles and terminology: one may either focus on the historical foundation (as evidenced in the oldest Ayurvedic texts, going back to the early centuries of the Common Era) or, alternatively, a description may take an ethnographic approach and focus on the forms of traditional medicine prevalent across India today.

Much like the medicine of classical antiquity, Ayurveda has historically taken the approach of enumerating bodily substances in the framework of the five classical elements (Sanskrit [maha]panchabhuta, viz. earth, water, fire, air and aether. Moreover, Ayurveda names seven basic tissues (dhatu). They are plasma (rasa), blood (rakta), muscles (maṃsa), fat (meda), bone (asthi), marrow (majja), and semen (shukra).[12]

Ayurveda states that a balance of the three elemental substances, the Doshas, equals health, while imbalance equals disease. There are three doshas: Vata, Pitta and Kapha. One Ayurvedic theory states that each human possesses a unique combination of these doshas which define this person's temperament and characteristics. Each person has a natural state, or natural combination of these three elements, and should seek balance by modulating their behavior or environment. In this way they can increase or decrease the doshas they lack or have an abundance of respectively. Another view present in the ancient literature states that dosha equality is identical to health, and that persons with imbalance of dosha are proportionately unhealthy, because they are not in their natural state of balance. Prakriti is one of the most important concepts in Ayurveda.

In Ayurvedic theory, there are 20 qualities or characteristics (guṇas), which are inherent in all substances. They can be arranged in ten pairs of antonyms: heavy/light, cold/hot, unctuous/dry, dull/sharp, stable/mobile, soft/hard, non-slimy/slimy, smooth/coarse, minute/gross, viscous/liquid.[13]

Ensuring the proper functions of channels (srotas) that transport fluids is one part of Ayurvedic treatment, because a lack of healthy channels is thought to cause diseases. Practitioners treat patients with massages using oils and Swedana (fomentation) to open up these channels.[14]

Hinduism and Buddhism have had an influence on the development of many of Ayurveda's central ideas.[15] Balance is emphasised; suppressing natural urges is considered unhealthy and claimed to lead to illness;[15] to suppress sneezing, for example, may give rise to shoulder pain.[16] However, people are also cautioned to stay within the limits of reasonable balance and measure when following nature's urges.[15] For example, emphasis is placed on moderation of food intake,[17] sleep, and sexual intercourse.[15]


Ayurvedic doctors regard physical and mental existence as well as personality as a unit, each element having the capacity to influence the others. One of the fundamental aspects of Ayurvedic medicine is to take this holistic approach into account during diagnosis and therapy.


Ayurveda has 8 ways of diagnosis. They are Nadi (Pulse), Mootra (Urine), Mala (Stool), Jinvha (Tongue), Shabda (Speech), Sparsha (Touch), Druk (Vision), Aakruti (Appearance).[18]

File:Treatment procedures.jpg
Treatment procedures

Ayurvedic practitioners approach diagnosis by using the five senses.[19] Hearing is used to observe the condition of breathing and speech.[12] The study of the lethal points or marman marma is of special importance.[13]

File:Ayurweda kopfmassage.JPG
Head massage is used to apply oils.

Treatment and health protection

While two of the eight branches of classical Ayurveda deal with surgery (Śalya-cikitsā, Śālākya-tantra), contemporary Ayurvedic theory tends to emphasise that building a healthy metabolic system, attaining good digestion and proper excretion lead to vitality.[13] Ayurveda also focuses on exercise, yoga, and meditation.[20] To maintain health, a Sattvic diet can be prescribed to the patient.

Concepts of Dinacharya are followed in Ayurveda; dinacharya stresses the importance of natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) for healthy living. Hygiene, too, is a central practice of Ayurvedic medicine. Hygienic living involves regular bathing, cleansing of teeth, skin care, and eye washing.[12]

Natural medical substances used

Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments.[citation needed] Hundreds of plant-based medicines are employed, including cardamom and cinnamon. Some animal products may also be used, for example milk, bones, and gallstones. In addition, fats are used both for consumption and for external use. Minerals, including sulphur, arsenic, lead, copper sulfate and gold are also consumed as prescribed.[12] This practice of adding minerals to herbal medicine is known as rasa shastra.

In some cases, alcohol was used as a narcotic for patients undergoing operation. The advent of Islam introduced opium as a narcotic.[9] Both oil and tar were used to stop bleeding.[12] Traumatic bleeding was said to be stopped by four different methods: ligation of the blood vessel; cauterisation by heat; using different herbal or animal preparations locally which could facilitate clotting; and different medical preparations which could constrict the bleeding or oozing vessels. Various oils could be used in a number of ways, including regular consumption as a part of food, anointing, smearing, head massage, prescribed application to affected areas[21]Template:Page needed, and Oil pulling. Also, liquids may be poured on the patient's forehead, a technique which is called Shirodhara.

File:Cataract in human eye.png
Cataract in human eye – magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Cataract surgery is mentioned in the Sushruta Samhita in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, as performed with a special tool called the jabamukhi salaka, a curved needle used to loosen the obstructing phlegm and push it out of the field of vision. The eye would later be soaked with warm butter and then bandaged.[22]


According to some experts, the practice of panchakarma (Devanāgarī: पंचकर्म‌)) is a therapeutic way of eliminating toxic elements from the body.[23] Panchakarma includes Vamana, Virechana, Basti, Nasya and Raktamokshana. Panchakarma is preceded by Poorva karma (Preparatory Step)and is followed by Paschat karma and Peyadi karma.



Ayurveda is a discipline of the upaveda or "auxiliary knowledge". It is treated as a supplement or appendix of the Vedas themselves, the Rigveda. The samhita of the Atharvaveda itself contains 114 hymns or incantations for the magical cure of diseases. Scholars have traced the origins of Ayurveda back to 5,000 BCE, originating as an oral tradition. Later, as medical texts, Ayurveda evolved from the Vedas.[24] There are various legendary accounts of the "origin of Ayurveda", e.g., that the science was received by Dhanvantari (or Divodasa) from Brahma.[12][25][26] Tradition also holds that a lost text written by the sage Agnivesh, a student of the sage Bharadwaja, influenced the writings of Ayurveda.[27]

Main Texts

There are three principal early texts on Ayurveda, all dating to the early centuries of the Common Era. These are the Charaka Samhita, the Sushruta Samhita and the medical portions of the Bower Manuscript (also known as the Bheda Samhita). The relative chronology of these texts is not entirely clear. The Charaka Samhita is often cited as primary; although it survived only as a recension dating to the 4th or 5th century, it may be based on an original written between 100 BCE and 100 CE, in which case it would predate the other two texts. The Sushruta Samhita was written in the 3rd or 4th century. The Bower Manuscript is of particular interest because here the manuscript itself is ancient, dated to the early 6th century.[28] The earliest documented mention of the name Sushruta is found in the Bower Manuscript.[29] The medical portions of the Bower Manuscript constitutes a collection of recipes which are connected to numerous ancient authorities, and may be based on an older medical tradition practised during the Maurya period, antedating both the Charaka and the Sushruta Samhitas.

The Bower Manuscript is also of special interest to historians due to the presence of Indian medicine and its concepts in Central Asian Buddhism. A. F. R. Hoernle in his 1897 edition identified the scribe of the medical portions of the manuscript as a native of India, using a northern variant of the Gupta script, who had migrated and become a Buddhist monk in a monastery in Kucha. The Chinese pilgrim Fa Hsien (c. 337–422 AD) wrote about the health care system of the Gupta empire (320–550) and described the institutional approach of Indian medicine, also visible in the works of Charaka, who mentions a clinic and how it should be equipped.[30]

Other early texts, sometimes mentioned alongside the Sushruta, Chakaka and Bheda texts, are the Kasyapa and the Harita samhitas, presumably dating to the later Gupta period (ca. 6th century). Ayurvedic authors of the 7th or 8th century include Vagbhata and Madhava.[31]

Illnesses portrayed

Underwood & Rhodes (2008) hold that this early phase of traditional Indian medicine identified "fever (takman), cough, consumption, diarrhea, dropsy, abscesses, seizures, tumours, and skin diseases (including leprosy)".[12] Treatment of complex ailments, including angina pectoris, diabetes, hypertension, and stones, also ensued during this period.[2][32] Plastic surgery, couching (a form of cataract surgery), puncturing to release fluids in the abdomen, extraction of foreign elements, treatment of anal fistulas, treating fractures, amputations, cesarean sections, and stitching of wounds were known.[12] The use of herbs and surgical instruments became widespread.[12]

Further development and spread

The field of Ayurveda flourished throughout the Indian Middle Ages; Dalhana (fl. 1200), Sarngadhara (fl. 1300) and Bhavamisra (fl. 1500) compiled works on Indian medicine.[29]

The medical works of both Sushruta and Charaka were also translated into the Arabic language during the 8th century.[33] The 9th-century Persian physician Rhazes was familiar with the text.[34] The Arabic works derived from the Gupta-era Indian texts eventually also reached a European audience by the end of the medieval period.[33]

In Renaissance Italy, the Branca family of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi (Bologna) are known to have been influenced by the Arabic reception of the surgical techniques of Sushruta.[33]

British physicians travelled to India to see rhinoplasty being performed using native methods; reports on Indian rhinoplasty were published in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794.[35] Instruments described in the Sushruta Samhita were further modified in the Western World.[36] Joseph Constantine Carpue spent 20 years in India studying local plastic surgery methods and was able to perform the first major surgery in the western world, the "Indian" method of nose reconstruction, in 1815.[35][36] He published an article about his research and experience.[37][38]

Current status


According to some sources, up to 80 percent of people in India use some form of traditional medicine, a category which includes Ayurveda.[39][40]

In 1970, the Indian Medical Central Council Act which aimed to standardise qualifications for Ayurveda practitioners and provide accredited institutions for its study and research was passed by the Parliament of India.[41] In India, over 100 colleges offer degrees in traditional Ayurvedic medicine.[20] The Indian government supports research and teaching in Ayurveda through many channels at both the national and state levels, and helps institutionalise traditional medicine so that it can be studied in major towns and cities.[42] The state-sponsored Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) has been set up in order to do extensive research on the subject.[43] To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of 1200 formulations of various systems of Indian medicine, such as Ayurveda, unani and siddha.[44][45] The library also possesses 50 traditional Ayurveda books in a digitised form, made available online.[46]

The Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971, under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, monitors higher education in Ayurveda.[47] Many clinics in urban and rural areas are run by professionals who qualify from these institutes.[41]

Sri Lanka

Tulsi-flower (holy basil—a well known Ayurvedic herb)

The Sri Lankan tradition of Ayurveda is very similar to the Indian tradition. Practitioners of Ayurveda in Sri Lanka refer to texts on the subject written in Sanskrit, which are common to both countries. However, they do differ in some aspects, particularly in the herbs used.

The Sri Lankan government has established a Ministry of Indigenous Medicine (established in 1980) to revive and regulate the practice within the country.[48] The Institute of Indigenous Medicine (affiliated to the University of Colombo) currently offers undergraduate, postgraduate, and MD degrees in the practice of Ayurveda Medicine and Surgery, and similar degrees in unani medicine.[49]

There are currently 62 Ayurvedic Hospitals and 208 central dispensaries in the public system, and they served almost 3 million people (approximately 11% of Sri Lanka's total population) in 2010. In total there are currently approximately 20,000 registered practitioners of Ayurveda in the country.[50][51]

According to the Mahavamsa, the ancient chronicle of Sinhalese royalty written in the sixth century A.D., King Pandukabhaya of Sri Lanka (reigned 437 BC to 367 BC) had lying-in-homes and Ayurvedic hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the country. This is the earliest documented evidence available of institutions dedicated specifically to the care of the sick anywhere in the world.[52][53] Mihintale Hospital is the oldest in the world.[54]

Outside the Subcontinent

Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine developed during antiquity and the medieval period, and as such comparable to pre-modern Chinese and European systems of medicine. However, beginning in the 1960s, Ayurveda has begun to be advertised as "alternative medicine" in the West. Due to different laws and medical regulations in the rest of the world, the unregulated practice and commercialisation of Ayurvedic medicine has raised ethical and legal issues. In some instances, Ayurvedic practices or terminology have also been adapted specifically for Western consumption, notably in the case of "Maharishi Ayurveda" in the 1980s; in some cases, this has involved active fraud on the part of proponents of Ayurveda in an attempt to falsely represent the system as equal to the standards of modern medical research.[55][56][57]

Scientific appraisal

File:Fruit I IMG 9577.jpg
In studies in mice, the leaves of Terminalia arjuna have been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.[58]
File:Bark of Terminalia arjuna.jpg
Bark of Terminalia arjuna

As a traditional medicine, many Ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials.[citation needed] In India, research in Ayurveda is undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes.[59] A systematic review of Ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits.[60] A review of Ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that the evidence for Ayurveda was not convincing, though some herbs seemed promising.[61]

Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants.[62] Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.[63] According to Cancer Research UK, "there is no evidence that Ayurvedic herbal medicines can prevent, treat or cure cancer in humans".[64]

Within the last decade, some PubMed-indexed journals have been published in the field of Ayurveda.[65][66]

Use of toxic metals

Rasa shastra, the practice of adding metals, minerals or gems to herbs, may include toxic heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic.[8] Adverse reactions to herbs due to their pharmacology are described in traditional Ayurvedic texts, but Ayurvedic practitioners are reluctant to admit that herbs could be toxic and that reliable information on herbal toxicity is not readily available; there is a communication gap between modern medicine practitioners and Ayurvedic practitioners.[67]

According to a 1990 study on Ayurvedic medicines in India, 41% of the products tested contained arsenic, and 64% contained lead and mercury.[39] A 2004 study found toxic levels of heavy metals in 20% of Ayurvedic preparations made in South Asia and sold in the Boston area; it concluded that Ayurvedic products posed serious health risks and should be tested for heavy-metal contamination.[68] A 2008 study of more than 230 products found that approximately 20% of remedies (and 40% of rasa shastra medicines) purchased over the Internet from U.S. and Indian suppliers contained lead, mercury or arsenic.[8][69][70] In 2012 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) linked Ayurvedic drugs to lead poisoning, based on some cases where toxic materials were found in the blood of pregnant women who had taken Ayurvedic drugs.[71]

Ayurvedic proponents believe that the toxicity of these materials is reduced through purification processes such as samskaras or shodhanas (for metals), similar to the Chinese pao zhi, although the Ayurvedic technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical pharmacy techniques. However, these products have nonetheless caused severe lead poisoning and other toxic effects.[69][72]

Due to these concerns, the government of India ruled that Ayurvedic products must specify their metallic content directly on the labels of the product.[5] But, writing on the subject for Current Science, a publication of the Indian Academy of Sciences, M. S. Valiathan noted that "the absence of post-market surveillance and the paucity of test laboratory facilities [in India] make the quality control of Ayurvedic medicines exceedingly difficult at this time."[5]

Most Ayurvedic products are labelled either for drug uses are not approved by FDA or as dietary supplements. There is an import alert on some medicines issued by the FDA since 2007 which prevents these products entering the United States.[73]

See also


  1. Wells, John C. (2009). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. London: Pearson Longman. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)
  3. "A Closer Look at Ayurvedic Medicine". Focus on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Bethesda, Maryland: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), US National Institutes of Health (NIH)) 12 (4). Fall 2005 – Winter 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-09. 
  4. "About VA Shiva Ayyadurai". Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Valiathan, MS (2006). "Ayurveda: putting the house in order" (pdf). Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) 90 (1): 5–6. 
  6. Healing Your Life: Lessons on the Path of Ayurveda. 2012. p. 7.  Written by Marc Halpern, Published by Lotus Press, year 2012 [1]
  7. "Textbook of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry", Written by Biren Shah, page 455, published by Elsevier, year 2009, [2]
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Saper RB; Phillips RS et al. (2008). "Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured medicines sold via the internet". JAMA 300 (8): 915–923. doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915. PMID 18728265. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Chopra 2003, p. 80
  10. Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit Dictionary (1899), s.v. "Āyurveda" Template:OL
  11. Clifford, Terry (2003). Tibetan Buddhist Medicine and Psychiatry. 42. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-1784-2.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Underwood & Rhodes (2008)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Chopra 2003, p. 76, citing Sushrutasamhita 25.36.
  14. Wujastyk, pp. XIX-XX
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Wujastyk, p. XVIII
  16. Namyata Pathak, A Raut, Ashok Vaidya Acute Cervical Pain Syndrome Resulting from Suppressed Sneezing - JAPI (Accessed on 29 Oct 2013)
  17. Chopra 2003, p. 75
  18. PMID 11253416 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  19. Chopra 2003, p. 79
  20. 20.0 20.1 <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (2008). "Ayurveda". Encarta. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. 
  21. Wujastyk, p. XX
  22. Finger, p. 66
  23. Sharma, A. K. (2003). "Panchkarma Therapy in Ayurvedic Medicine". in Mishra, Lakshmi Chandra. Scientific Basis for Ayurvedic Therapies. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8493-1366-X. 
  24. Elizabeth R. Mackenzie, Birgit Rakel (2006). Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Older Adults: A Guide to Holistic Approaches to Healthy Aging. Springer. p. 215. ISBN 9780826138064. 
  25. Singh, P.B.; Pravin S. Rana (2002). Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide. Varanasi: Indica Books. p. 31. ISBN 81-86569-24-3. 
  26. Dhanvantari. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 August 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  27. Ṭhākara, Vināyaka Jayānanda (1989). Methodology of Research in Ayurveda. Jamnagar, India: Gujarat Ayurved University Press. p. 7. 
  28. The 1897 edition by A. F. R. Hoernle suggested a 4th-century date, but this was superseded by later studies, Dani, Ahmad Hasan. Indian Palaeography. (2nd edition New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1986); Sander, Lore, "Origin and date of the Bower Manuscript, a new approach" in M. Yaldiz and W. Lobo (eds.), Investigating the Indian Arts (Berlin: Museum Fuer Indische Kunst, 1987).
  29. 29.0 29.1 Wujastyk, p. XXVI
  30. Wujastyk, pp. XV-XVI
  31. Wujastyk, p. 224
  32. Lock et al., p. 836
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Lock et al., p. 607
  34. Ramachandra S.K. Rao, Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicine: historical perspective, Volume 1, 2005, 94–98.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Lock "et al., p. 651
  36. 36.0 36.1 Lock et al., p. 652
  37. A practical essay on some of the principal surgical diseases of India (1840)
  39. 39.0 39.1 Paul I. Dargan, et al. (2008). "Heavy metal poisoning from Ayurvedic traditional medicines: an emerging problem?". Int. J. Environment and Health (Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.) 2 (3/4): 463–74. doi:10.1504/IJENVH.2008.020935. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  40. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction (Archived on 26 May 2013)
  41. 41.0 41.1 Wujastyk, p. XXII
  42. Wujastyk, p. XVI
  43. "Welcome to Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha ( India )". Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  44. Traditional Knowledge Digital Library website.
  45. "Know Instances of Patenting on the UES of Medicinal Plants in India". PIB, Ministry of Environment and Forests. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  46. 50 Ayurveda books online Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (Govt. of India)
  47. CCIM. Retrieved on 29 August 2011.
  48. "Ministry of Indigenous Medicine". Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  49. "Institute of indigenous Medicine". Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  51. ":: Indigenous-Medicine". 14 February 1980. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  52. Prof. Arjuna Aluvihare, "Rohal Kramaya Lovata Dhayadha Kale Sri Lankikayo" Vidhusara Science Magazine, Nov. 1993.
  53. Resource Mobilization in Sri Lanka's Health Sector – Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P. & De Mel, Nishan, Harvard School of Public Health & Health Policy Programme, Institute of Policy Studies, February 1997, Page 19. Accessed 22 February 2008.
  54. Heinz E Müller-Dietz, Historia Hospitalium (1975).
  55. "From time to time, even the most prestigious science journals publish erroneous or fraudulent data, unjustified conclusions, and sometimes balderdash. Balderdash was the right word when The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published the article, "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Modern Insights Into Ancient Medicine," in its 22/29 May issue. Discovering that they had been deceived by the article's authors, the editors published a correction in the 14 August issue, which was followed on 2 October by a six-page expose on the people who had hoodwinked them." Skolnick, Andrew A. (1991). "The Maharishi Caper: Or How to Hoodwink Top Medical Journals". ScienceWriters (New York, NY: National Association of Science Writers) Fall. Archived from the original on 16 July 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
  56. Skolnick, A. A. (1991). "Maharishi Ayur-Veda: Guru's marketing scheme promises the world eternal 'perfect health'". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 266 (13): 1741–2. doi:10.1001/jama.266.13.1741. PMID 1817475. 
  57. National Policy on Traditional Medicine and Regulation of Herbal Medicines – Report of a WHO Global Survey
  58. Moulisha Biswas, Kaushik Biswas, Tarun K Karan, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Ashoke K Ghosh, and Pallab K Haldar, Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Terminalia arjuna leaf, Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(1): 33–38.
  59. "Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (Government of India)". 
  60. Park, J.; Ernst, E. (2005). "Ayurvedic Medicine for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review". Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 34 (5): 705–713. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2004.11.005. PMID 15846585. 
  61. Mamtani, R.; Mamtani, R. (2005). "Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases". Cardiology Review 13 (3): 155–162. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000128730.31658.36. PMID 15834238. 
  62. Govindarajan, R.; Vijayakumar, M.; Pushpangadan, P. (2005). "Antioxidant Approach to Disease Management and the Role of 'Rasayana' Herbs of Ayurveda". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 99 (2): 165–178. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.035. PMID 15894123. 
  63. Subapriya, R.; Nagini, S. (2005). "Medicinal Properties of Neem Leaves: A Review". Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 5 (2): 149–6. doi:10.2174/1568011053174828. PMID 15777222. 
  64. "Ayurvedic medicine". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved August 2013. 
  65. Subhose, V.; Srinivas, P.; Narayana, A. (2005). "Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in Ayurvĕda". Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad 35 (2): 83–92. PMID 17333665. 
  66. Samy, RP; Pushparaj, PN; Gopalakrishnakone, P (2008). "A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda.". Bioinformation 3 (3): 100–110. PMID 19238245. 
  67. Urmila T; Supriya B (2008). "Pharmacovigilance of ayurvedic medicines in India". Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40 (S1): 10–12. 
  68. Saper, R. B.; Kales SN; Paquin, J et al. (2004). "Heavy metal content of ayurveda herbal medicine products". Journal of the American Medical Association 292 (23): 2868–2673. doi:10.1001/jama.292.23.2868. PMID 15598918. 
  69. 69.0 69.1 Ellin, Abby (17 September 2008). "Skin deep: ancient, but how safe?". New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2008. "A report in the August 27 [2008] issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association found that nearly 21 percent of 193 ayurvedic herbal supplements bought online, produced in both India and the United States, contained lead, mercury or arsenic." 
  70. Szabo, Liz (26 August 2008). "Study finds toxins in some herbal medicines". USA Today. 
  71. Ayurveda linked to lead poisoning in US women, The Financial Express, Washington edition (24 August 2012) (accessed on 25 Sep 2012)
  72. Saper RB; Phillips RS; Sehgal A (August 2008). "Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US- and Indian-manufactured ayurvedic medicines sold via the internet". JAMA 300 (8): 915–923. doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915. PMID 18728265. 
  73. US FDA website Use Caution With Ayurvedic Products (Accessed on 27 October 2013)

Further reading

External links

Template:Sister project links

Template:Hinduism footer small