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Eleutherococcus senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia. It is often colloquially referred to as Siberian Ginseng, eleuthero or Ciwujia. E. senticosus has a history of use in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as cì wǔ jiā (刺五加).
E. senticosus has been marketed in the United States as Siberian Ginseng because it is believed to have similar herbal properties to those of Panax ginseng. However, it belongs to a different genus in the family Araliaceae, and it is currently illegal in the United States to market eleuthero as Siberian Ginseng, since the term "ginseng" is reserved for species in the Panax genus.
The herb grows in mixed and coniferous mountain forests, forming low undergrowth or is found in groups in thickets and edges. E. senticosus is sometimes found in oak groves at the foot of cliffs, very rarely in high forest riparian woodland. Its native habitat is East Asia, China, Japan, and Russia. E. senticosus is broadly tolerant of soils, growing in sandy, loamy, and heavy clay soils with acid, neutral, or alkaline chemistry and including soils of low nutritional value. It can tolerate sun or dappled shade and some degree of pollution. E. senticosus is a deciduous shrub growing to 2m at a slow rate. It is hardy to zone 3. It flowers in July in most habitats. The flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by insects.
E. senticosus is a thought to be an adaptogen and there is a wide range of health benefits attributed to its use in herbal medicine.
In Chinese herbology, E. senticosis is used by people with bone marrow suppression caused by chemotherapy or radiation, angina, hypercholesterolemia, and neurasthenia with headache, insomnia, and poor appetite.
Extracts of E. senticosus have been shown to have a variety of biological effects in vitro or in animal models, but these effects have not been demonstrated in human trials:
- increased endurance/anti-fatigue 
- memory/learning improvement
- anti-inflammatory 
- antidepressant-like effects
The major constituents of E. senticosus are ciwujianoside A-E, eleutheroside B (syringin), eleutherosides A-M, friedelin, isofraxidin and acanthoside-D.
Interactions and side effects
- People with medicated high blood pressure should consult their doctor before taking E. senticosus because it may potentiate the medications' side effects.
- E. senticosus, when purchased from non-GMP sources, has occasionally been adulterated with Periploca graeca, which can potentiate digoxin or similar drugs; however, this is not an interaction of E. senticosus.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2
"Eleutherococcus senticosus information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?15004. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
- ↑ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl/record/kew-66477.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Winston, David & Maimes, Steven (2007). Adaptogens: Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief. Healing Arts Press.
"Eleutherococcus senticosus". Plants for a Future. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eleutherococcus+senticosus. Retrieved 2013-01-16.
- ↑ Huang L, Zhao H, Huang B, Zheng C, Peng W, Qin L. (2011). "Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology". Pharmazie 66 (2): 83–97. PMID 21434569.
- ↑ Halstead B, Hood L (1984). Eleutherococcus senticosis–Siberian Ginseng, OHAI. p.7.
- ↑ Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, Art of Medicine Press, City of Industry, CA 2004
- ↑ David Winston. Native American, Chinese, and Ayurvedic Materia Medica, HTSBM, pp. 1-1
- ↑ Huang L.-Z., Huang B.-K., Ye Q., Qin L.-P. (2011). "Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 133 (1): 213–219. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.032. PMID 20920564.
- ↑ Xu Y.J., Han C.J., Xu S.J., Yu X., Jiang G.Z., Nan C.H. "Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and protection against free radical injury to brain tissue" Neural Regeneration Research 2008 3:2 (192-195)
- ↑ Jung S.M., Schumacher H.R., Kim H., Kim M., Lee S.H., Pessler F. "Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: Elevation of prostaglandin D2levels" Arthritis Research and Therapy 2007 9:4 Article Number R64
- ↑ Chen R., Liu Z., Zhao J., Chen R., Meng F., Zhang M., Ge W. (2011). "Antioxidant and immunobiological activity of water-soluble polysaccharide fractions purified from Acanthopanax senticosu [sic]". Food Chemistry 127 (2): 434–440. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.143. PMID 23140683.
Kurkin VA, Dubishchev AV, Ezhkov VN, Titova IN, Avdeeva EV (2006). "Antidepressant activity of some phytopharmaceuticals and phenylpropanoids". Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal 40 (11): 614–9. doi:10.1007/s11094-006-0205-5. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t6512435001n1418/.
- ↑ Deyama T, Nishibe S, Nakazawa Y (December 2001). "Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 22 (12): 1057–70. PMID 11749801. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11749801.
- ↑ Preparative Separation of Acanthoside-D from Acanthopanax senticosus. Row K H., Song M S, J Chem Eng Jpn, 2004, volume 37, number 2, pages 378-382 (abstract)
- ↑ PMID 8705908 (PubMed)
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- Eleutherococcus senticosus Photos (PlantSystematics.org)
- Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 2: Radix Eleutherococci (World Health Organization)
- Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS (May 2003). "Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers". Drug Metab. Dispos. 31 (5): 519–22. doi:10.1124/dmd.31.5.519. PMID 12695337. http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/31/5/519.full.
- University of Maryland Alternative Medicine Reference
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- Jung SM, Schumacher HR, Kim H, Kim M, Lee SH, Pessler F (2007). "Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels". Arthritis Res. Ther. 9 (4): R64. doi:10.1186/ar2222. PMID 17612394. PMC 2206389. http://arthritis-research.com/content/9/4/R64.
- Brunner, R., Tabachnik, B. (1990). Soviet Training and Recovery Methods, pp. 217–21. Sport Focus Publishing.
- Bohn B, Nebe CT, Birr C (1987). "Flow Cytometric Studies with Eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an Immunomodulating Agent". Drug Res 37 (10): 1193–6.
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