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- This article is about the Eurasian Asteraceae species. For the North American Asteraceae genus, see Parthenium. For the band, see The Feverfew.
| Tanacetum parthenium|
(L.) Sch. Bip.
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium; syn. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers., Pyrethrum parthenium Sm.) is a traditional medicinal herb which is found in many old gardens, and is also occasionally grown for ornament. The plant grows into a small bush up to around 46 cm (18 in) high with citrus-scented leaves, and is covered by flowers reminiscent of daisies. It spreads rapidly, and they will cover a wide area after a few years. It is also commonly seen in the literature by its synonyms, Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh. and Pyrethrum parthenium (L.) Sm.
Feverfew was native to Eurasia; specifically the Balkan Peninsula, Anatolia and the Caucasus, but cultivation has spread it around the world and it is now also found in Europe, the Mediterranean, North America and Chile.
The word "feverfew" derives from the Latin word febrifugia, meaning "fever reducer." The plant has been used as a herbal treatment to reduce fever and to treat headaches, arthritis and digestive problems, though scientific evidence does not support anything beyond a placebo effect.
The active ingredients in feverfew include parthenolide and tanetin. There has been some scientific interest in parthenolide, which has been shown to induce apoptosis in some cancer cell lines in vitro and potentially to target cancer stem cells. There are no published studies of parthenolide or feverfew in humans with cancer. The parthenolide content of commercially available feverfew supplements varies substantially, by over 40-fold, despite labeling claims of "standardization". A study found that the actual parthenolide content of these supplements bore little resemblance to the content claimed on the product label.
Long-term use of feverfew followed by abrupt discontinuation may induce a withdrawal syndrome featuring rebound headaches and muscle and joint pains. Feverfew can cause allergic reactions, including contact dermatitis. Other side effects have included gastrointestinal upset such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and flatulence. When the herb is chewed or taken orally it can cause mouth ulcers and swelling and numbness of the mouth.
Feverfew should not be taken by pregnant women. It may interact with blood thinners and increase the risk of bleeding, and may also interact with a variety of medications metabolized by the liver.
A perennial herb, which should be planted in full sun, 38–46 cm (15–18 in) apart and grows up to 61 cm (24 in) tall. It is hardy to USDA zone 5 (−30 °C (−22 °F)) and should be cut back to the ground in the autumn. Outside of its native range it can become an invasive weed.
- Jeffrey C (2001). "Tanacetum parthenium". Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:46:3959160511697399::NO::module,mf_use,source,taxid,akzname:mf,,volksnam,32354,Tanacetum%20parthenium.
- Government of Saskatchewan: Agricultural (Herbs and Spices) Feverfew Information [Web Article]. http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=5a05a8da-ff3e-490b-b280-35f7b22b803b Retrieved : 06/01/2012
- "Feverfew". University of Maryland. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/feverfew-000243.htm. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Pittler, MH; Ernst, E (2004). Pittler, Max H. ed. "Feverfew for preventing migraine". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD002286. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002286.pub2. PMID 14973986.
- "Feverfew". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. July 2010. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/feverfew/. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Pareek A, Suthar M, Rathore GS, Bansal V (January 2011). "Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review". Pharmacogn Rev 5 (9): 103–10. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.79105. PMID 22096324.
- Guzman ML, Rossi RM, Karnischky L, et al. (June 2005). "The sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide induces apoptosis of human acute myelogenous leukemia stem and progenitor cells". Blood 105 (11): 4163–9. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-10-4135. PMID 15687234. PMC 1895029. http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/105/11/4163.long.
- Guzman ML, Jordan CT (September 2005). "Feverfew: weeding out the root of leukaemia". Expert Opin Biol Ther 5 (9): 1147–52. doi:10.1517/147125220.127.116.117. PMID 16120045.
- Lesiak K, Koprowska K, Zalesna I, Nejc D, Düchler M, Czyz M (February 2010). "Parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from the medical herb feverfew, shows anticancer activity against human melanoma cells in vitro". Melanoma Res. 20 (1): 21–34. doi:10.1097/CMR.0b013e328333bbe4. PMID 19949351.
- Draves AH, Walker SE (2004). "Parthenolide content of Canadian commercial feverfew preparations: Label claims are misleading in most cases" (PDF). Canadian Pharmacists Journal 136 (10): 23–30. http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/CPJPDFS/Jan04/parthenolide.pdf.
- PMID 18021604 (PubMed)
- Yao M, Ritchie HE, Brown-Woodman PD (November 2006). "A reproductive screening test of feverfew: is a full reproductive study warranted?". Reprod. Toxicol. 22 (4): 688–93. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.04.014. PMID 16781113. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-6238(06)00102-X.
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