Please forgive the slight inconvenience in creating a new account. Due to juvenile delinquents spamming garbage to the site, we had to install a "Captcha", which can differentiate a spam bot from a human. Once you open your account, confirm it by returning the email, and identifying yourself, we will give you edit privileges. Just request them by leaving a message at click here.

Omega-3 fatty acid

From English WikiChiro
Jump to: navigation, search

Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acids or n-3 fatty acids[1]) are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain.[2] The fatty acids have two ends, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of the chain, thus "omega." The nomenclature of the fatty acid is taken from the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end.

The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are ALA (found in plant oils), EPA, and DHA (both commonly found in marine oils). Common sources of animal omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids include fish oils, egg oil, squid oils, krill oil, while some plant oils contain the omega 3 ALA fatty acid such as seabuckthorn and chia seeds, along with berry oils, clary sage seed oil, algal oil, flaxseed oil, Sacha Inchi oil, Echium oil, and hemp oil.

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for normal metabolism,[3] but the health benefits of supplementation appear to be few if any. Omega-3s are considered essential fatty acids, meaning that they cannot be synthesized by the human body. However, mammals have a limited ability to synthesize omega-3 fats when the diet includes the shorter-chain omega-3 fatty acid ALA (α-linolenic acid, 18 carbons and 3 double bonds) to form the more important long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20 carbons and 5 double bonds) and then from EPA, the most crucial, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22 carbons and 6 double bonds) with even greater inefficiency.[3] The ability to make the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids from ALA may also be impaired in aging.[4][5] In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.[6]

Health effects

Supplementation does not appear to be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality.[7]


The evidence linking the consumption of fish to the risk of cancer is poor.[8] Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not appear to affect this either.[9]

A 2006 review concluded that there was no link between omega-3 fatty acids consumption and cancer.[10] This is similar to the findings of a review of studies up to February 2002 that failed to find clear effects of long and shorter chain omega-3 fats on total risk of death, combined cardiovascular events and cancer.[11][12] In those with advanced cancer and cachexia, omega-3 fatty acids supplements may be of benefit, improving appetite, weight, and quality of life.[13] There is tentative evidence that marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce the risk of breast cancer but this is not conclusive.[14][15]

The effect of consumption on prostate cancer is not conclusive.[15] There is a decreased risk with higher blood levels of DPA, but an increased risk of more aggressive prostate cancer with higher blood levels of combined EPA and DHA (found in fatty fish oil).[16]

Cardiovascular disease

Evidence does not support a beneficial role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death) or stroke.[7][17] Fish oil supplementation has not been shown to benefit revascularization or arrythmia and has no effect on heart failure admission rates.[18] Eating a diet high in fish that contain long chain omega-3 fatty acids does appear to decrease the risk of stroke.[19]

Large amounts may increase low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (see below), up to 46%, although LDL changes from small to larger, buoyant, less atherogenic particles.[20]

Omega-3 fatty acids may have a modest effect on systolic blood pressure, though studies have produced inconsistent results.[21] The 18 carbon α-linolenic acid (ALA) has not been shown to have the same cardiovascular benefits that DHA or EPA may have.[22]

Some evidence suggests that people with certain circulatory problems, such as varicose veins, may benefit from the consumption of EPA and DHA, which may stimulate blood circulation, increase the breakdown of fibrin, a compound involved in clot and scar formation, and, in addition, may reduce blood pressure.[23][24] Evidently, omega-3 fatty acids reduce blood triglyceride levels,[25][26][27] and regular intake may reduce the risk of secondary and primary heart attack.[28] ALA does not confer the cardiovascular health benefits of EPA and DHA.[29]

Large amounts may increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women; lower amounts are not related to this risk.[30]


Some research suggests that the anti-inflammatory activity of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may translate into clinical effects.[31]

For rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one systematic review found a consistent, but modest, evidence for the effect of marine n-3 PUFAs on symptoms such as "joint swelling and pain, duration of morning stiffness, global assessments of pain and disease activity" as well as the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.[32] However, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has stated that there may be modest benefit from the use of fish oils, but that it may take months for effects to be seen, and cautions for possible gastrointestinal side effects and the possibility of the supplements containing mercury or vitamin A at toxic levels. Due to the lack of regulations for safety and efficacy, the ACR does not recommend herbal supplements and feels there is an overall lack of "sound scientific evidence" for their use.[33] The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine has concluded that "[n]o dietary supplement has shown clear benefits for RA", but that there is preliminary evidence that fish oil may be beneficial, and called for further study.[34]

Developmental disorders

Although not supported by current scientific evidence as a primary treatment for ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, and other developmental differences,[35][36] omega-3 fatty acids have gained popularity for children with these conditions.[35]

A Cochrane review found "there is little evidence that PUFA supplementation provides any benefit for the symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents",[37] while a different review found "insufficient evidence to draw any conclusion about the use of PUFAs for children with specific learning disorders."[38] Another review concluded that the evidence is inconclusive for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders such ADHD and depression.[39] A different systematic review concluded there is a modest effect for omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD, but its effect is less than more traditional pharmaceutical medications.[40]

Fish oil has only a small benefit on the risk of early birth.[41][42]

Mental health

There is some evidence that omega-3 fatty acids are related to mental health,[43] including that they may tentatively be useful as an add-on for the treatment of depression associated with bipolar disorder[44] and there is preliminary evidence that EPA supplementation is helpful in cases of depression.[45] There is, however, a significant difficulty in interpreting the literature due to participant recall and systematic differences in diets.[46]

Cognitive aging

Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the risk of dementia, but evidence of a treatment effect in dementia patients is inconclusive.[47] However, clinical evidence suggests benefits of treatment specifically in patients who show signs of cognitive decline but who are not sufficiently impaired to meet criteria for dementia.[48]


Chemical structure of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 fatty acid, (18:3Δ9c,12c,15c, which means a chain of 18 carbons with 3 double bonds on carbons numbered 9, 12, and 15). Although chemists count from the carbonyl carbon (blue numbering), biologists count from the n (ω) carbon (red numbering). Note that, from the n end (diagram right), the first double bond appears as the third carbon-carbon bond (line segment), hence the name "n-3". This is explained by the fact that the n end is almost never changed during physiological transformations in the human body, as it is more energy-stable, and other compounds can be synthesized from the other carbonyl end, for example in glycerides, or from double bonds in the middle of the chain.
Chemical structure of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
Chemical structure of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Template:Citation needed span

List of omega-3 fatty acids

This table lists several different names for the most common omega-3 fatty acids found in nature.

Common name Lipid name Chemical name
Hexadecatrienoic acid (HTA) 16:3 (n-3) all-cis-7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic acid
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) 18:3 (n-3) all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
Stearidonic acid (SDA) 18:4 (n-3) all-cis-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid
Eicosatrienoic acid (ETE) 20:3 (n-3) all-cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid
Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) 20:4 (n-3) all-cis-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5 (n-3) all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid
Heneicosapentaenoic acid (HPA) 21:5 (n-3) all-cis-6,9,12,15,18-heneicosapentaenoic acid
Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA),
Clupanodonic acid
22:5 (n-3) all-cis-7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6 (n-3) all-cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid
Tetracosapentaenoic acid 24:5 (n-3) all-cis-9,12,15,18,21-tetracosapentaenoic acid
Tetracosahexaenoic acid (Nisinic acid) 24:6 (n-3) all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoic acid

Mechanism of action

The 'essential' fatty acids were given their name when researchers found that they are essential to normal growth in young children and animals, though the modern definition of 'essential' is more strict. A small amount of omega-3 in the diet (~1% of total calories) enabled normal growth, and increasing the amount had little to no additional effect on growth.[49]

Likewise, researchers found that omega-6 fatty acids (such as γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid) play a similar role in normal growth. However, they also found that omega-6 was "better" at supporting dermal integrity, renal function, and parturition. These preliminary findings led researchers to concentrate their studies on omega-6, and it is only in recent decades that omega-3 has become of interest.[49]

In 1964, it was discovered that enzymes found in sheep tissues convert omega-6 arachidonic acid into the inflammatory agent called prostaglandin E,2,[50] which both causes the sensation of pain and expedites healing and immune response in traumatized and infected tissues.[49] By 1979, more of what are now known as eicosanoids were discovered: thromboxanes, prostacyclins, and the leukotrienes.[49] The eicosanoids, which have important biological functions, typically have a short active lifetime in the body, starting with synthesis from fatty acids and ending with metabolism by enzymes. However, if the rate of synthesis exceeds the rate of metabolism, the excess eicosanoids may have deleterious effects.[49] Researchers found that certain omega-3 fatty acids are also converted into eicosanoids, but at a much slower rate. Eicosanoids made from omega-3 fatty acids are often referred to as anti-inflammatory, but in fact they are just less inflammatory than those made from omega-6 fats. If both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are present, they will "compete" to be transformed,[49] so the ratio of long-chain omega-3:omega-6 fatty acids directly affects the type of eicosanoids that are produced.[49]

This competition was recognized as important when it was found that thromboxane is a factor in the clumping of platelets, which can both cause death by thrombosis and prevent death by bleeding. Likewise, the leukotrienes were found to be important in immune/inflammatory-system response, and therefore relevant to arthritis, lupus, asthma, and recovery from infections. These discoveries led to greater interest in finding ways to control the synthesis of omega-6 eicosanoids. The simplest way would be by consuming more omega-3 and fewer omega-6 fatty acids.[49]

They are required during the prenatal period for the formation of synapses and cell membranes. These processes are also essential in postnatal human development for injury response of the central nervous system and retinal stimulation.[51]


Conversion efficiency of ALA to EPA and DHA

Humans can convert short-chain omega-3 fatty acids to long-chain forms (EPA, DHA) with an efficiency below 5%.[52][53] The omega-3 conversion efficiency is greater in women than in men, but less-studied.[54]

These conversions occur competitively with omega-6 fatty acids, which are essential closely related chemical analogues that are derived from linoleic acid. Both the omega-3 α-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid must be obtained from food. Synthesis of the longer omega-3 fatty acids from linolenic acid within the body is competitively slowed by the omega-6 analogues. Thus, accumulation of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in tissues is more effective when they are obtained directly from food or when competing amounts of omega-6 analogs do not greatly exceed the amounts of omega-3.[citation needed]

The conversion of ALA to EPA and further to DHA in humans has been reported to be limited, but varies with individuals.[55][56] Women have higher ALA conversion efficiency than men, which is presumed[citation needed] to be due to the lower rate of use of dietary ALA for beta-oxidation. This suggests that biological engineering of ALA conversion efficiency is possible. Goyens et al. argue that it is the absolute amount of ALA, rather than the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, that controls the conversion efficiency.[57]

The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio

Some older clinical studies[49][58] indicate that the ingested ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 (especially linoleic vs alpha-linolenic) fatty acids is important to maintaining cardiovascular health. However, three studies published in 2005, 2007 and 2008, including a randomized controlled trial, found that, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are extremely beneficial in preventing heart disease in humans, the levels of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (and, therefore, the ratios) did not matter.[59][60][61]

Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are essential; i.e., humans must consume them in their diet. Omega-6 and omega-3 eighteen-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids compete for the same metabolic enzymes, thus the omega-6:omega-3 ratio of ingested fatty acids has significant influence on the ratio and rate of production of eicosanoids, a group of hormones intimately involved in the body's inflammatory and homeostatic processes, which include the prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, among others. Altering this ratio can change the body's metabolic and inflammatory state.[62] In general, grass-fed animals accumulate more omega-3 than do grain-fed animals, which accumulate relatively more omega-6.[63] Metabolites of omega-6 are more inflammatory (esp. arachidonic acid) than those of omega-3. This necessitates that omega-6 and omega-3 be consumed in a balanced proportion; healthy ratios of omega-6:omega-3, according to some authors, range from 1:1 to 1:4 (an individual needs more omega-3 than omega-6).[64] Other authors believe that ratio 4:1 (when the amount of omega-6 is only 4 times greater than that of omega-3) is already healthy.[65][66] Studies suggest the evolutionary human diet, rich in game animals, seafood, and other sources of omega-3, may have provided such a ratio.[67][68]

Typical Western diets provide ratios of between 10:1 and 30:1 (i.e., dramatically higher levels of omega-6 than omega-3).[69] The ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in some common vegetable oils are: canola 2:1, hemp 2-3:1,[70] soybean 7:1, olive 3–13:1, sunflower (no omega-3), flax 1:3,[71] cottonseed (almost no omega-3), peanut (no omega-3), grapeseed oil (almost no omega-3) and corn oil 46:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3.[72]


Although omega-3 fatty acids have been known as essential to normal growth and health since the 1930s, awareness of their health benefits has dramatically increased since the 1980s.[73][74]

On September 8, 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration gave "qualified health claim" status to EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids, stating, "supportive but not conclusive research shows that consumption of EPA and DHA [omega-3] fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease."[75] This updated and modified their health risk advice letter of 2001 (see below). As of this writing, regulatory agenciesTemplate:Who do not accept that there is sufficient evidence for any of the suggested benefits of DHA and EPA other than for cardiovascular health, and further claims should be treated with caution.

The Canadian government has recognized the importance of DHA omega-3 and permits the following biological role claim for DHA: "DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, supports the normal development of the brain, eyes and nerves."[76]

Dietary sources

Grams of omega-3 per 3oz (85g) serving[77] [78]
Common name grams omega-3
Herring, sardines 1.3–2
Mackerel: Spanish/Atlantic/Pacific 1.1–1.7
Salmon 1.1–1.9
Halibut 0.60–1.12
Tuna 0.21–1.1
Swordfish 0.97
Greenshell/lipped mussels 0.95[79]
Tilefish 0.9
Tuna (canned, light) 0.17–0.24
Pollock 0.45
Cod 0.15–0.24
Catfish 0.22–0.3
Flounder 0.48
Grouper 0.23
Mahi mahi 0.13
Orange roughy 0.028
Red snapper 0.29
Shark 0.83
King mackerel 0.36
Hoki (blue grenadier) 0.41[79]
Gemfish 0.40[79]
Blue eye cod 0.31[79]
Sydney rock oysters 0.30[79]
Tuna, canned 0.23[79]
Snapper 0.22[79]
Eggs, large regular 0.109[79]
Strawberry or Kiwifruit 0.10-0.20
Broccoli 0.10-0.20
Barramundi, saltwater 0.100[79]
Giant tiger prawn 0.100[79]
Lean red meat 0.031[79]
Turkey 0.030[79]
Cereals, rice, pasta, etc. 0.00[79]
Fruit 0.00[79]
Milk, regular 0.00[79]
Bread, regular 0.00[79]
Vegetables 0.00[79]

Daily values

As macronutrients, fats are not assigned Dietary Reference Intakes. Macronutrients have acceptable intake (AI) levels and acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) instead of RDAs. The AI for omega-3 is 1.6 grams/day for men and 1.1 grams/day for women, while the AMDR is 0.6% to 1.2% of total energy.[80]

A growing body of literature suggests that higher intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may afford some degree of protection against coronary disease. Because the physiological potency of EPA and DHA is much greater than that of ALA, it is not possible to estimate one AMDR for all omega-3 fatty acids. Approximately 10 percent of the AMDR can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA."[80] There was insufficient evidence as of 2005 to set an upper tolerable limit for omega-3 fatty acids.[80]

Heavy metal poisoning by the body's accumulation of traces of heavy metals, in particular mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic, and cadmium, is a possible risk from consuming fish oil supplements.Template:Mcn Also, other contaminants (PCBs, furans, dioxins, and PBDEs) might be found, especially in less-refined fish oil supplements.[citation needed] In reality, however, heavy metal toxicity from consuming fish oil supplements is highly unlikely, because heavy metals selectively bind with protein in the fish flesh rather than accumulate in the oil. An independent test in 2005 of 44 fish oils on the US market found all of the products passed safety standards for potential contaminants.[81][unreliable source?]

The FDA has advised that adults can safely consume a total of 3 grams per day of combined DHA and EPA, with no more than 2 g per day coming from dietary supplements.[82]

Throughout their history, the Council for Responsible Nutrition and the World Health Organization have published acceptable standards regarding contaminants in fish oil. The most stringent current standard is the International Fish Oils Standard.[83]Template:Primary source-inline Fish oils that are molecularly distilled under vacuum typically make this highest-grade, and have measurable levels of contaminants (measured parts per billion and parts per trillion).[citation needed]

A recent trend has been to fortify food with omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Global food companies have launched omega-3 fatty acid fortified bread, mayonnaise, pizza, yogurt, orange juice, children's pasta, milk, eggs, popcorn, confections, and infant formula.[citation needed]

The American Heart Association has set up dietary recommendations for EPA and DHA due to their cardiovascular benefits: Individuals with no history of coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction should consume oily fish or fish oils two times per week; those having been diagnosed with coronary heart disease after infarction should consume 1 g EPA and DHA per day from oily fish or supplements; those wishing to lower blood triglycerides should consume 2–4 g of EPA and DHA per day in the form of supplements.[84]Template:Update after


The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA is cold water oily fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines. Oils from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much omega-3 as omega-6. Other oily fish, such as tuna, also contain n-3 in somewhat lesser amounts. Consumers of oily fish should be aware of the potential presence of heavy metals and fat-soluble pollutants like PCBs and dioxins, which are known to accumulate up the food chain. After extensive review, researchers from Harvard's School of Public Health in the Journal of the American Medical Association (2006) reported that the benefits of fish intake generally far outweigh the potential risks. Although fish are a dietary source of omega-3 fatty acids, fish do not synthesize them; they obtain them from the algae (microalgae in particular) or plankton in their diets.[85]

Fish oil

Marine and freshwater fish oil vary in content of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA.[86] They also differ in their effects on organ lipids.[86] Not all forms of fish oil may be equally digestible. Of four studies that compare bioavailability of the glyceryl ester form of fish oil vs. the ethyl ester form, two have concluded the natural glyceryl ester form is better, and the other two studies did not find a significant difference. No studies have shown the ethyl ester form to be superior, although it is cheaper to manufacture.[87][88]


Krill oil is a newlyTemplate:When discovered source of omega-3 fatty acids. Various claims are made in support of krill oil as a superior[citation needed] source of omega-3 fatty acids. The effect of krill oil, at a lower dose of EPA + DHA (62.8%), was demonstrated to be similar to that of fish oil.[89]

Calamari oil

Calamari oil (also known as Squid oil) is another source of omega-3 fatty acid.[90] Calamari is considered to be more environmentally friendly than fish or krill oil, due to it being prepared from the largely unused portions of calamari catches.[91]

Plant sources

File:Flax seeds.jpg
Flax seeds produce linseed oil, which has a very high ALA content

These tables are incomplete.

Table 1. ALA content as the percentage of the seed oil.[92]

Common name Alternative name Linnaean name % ALA
Kiwifruit Chinese gooseberry Actinidia deliciosa 63[93]
Perilla shiso Perilla frutescens 61
Chia seed chia sage Salvia hispanica 58
Flax linseed Linum usitatissimum 53[94] – 59[95]
Lingonberry Cowberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea 49
Camelina Gold-of-pleasure Camelina sativa 36
Purslane Portulaca Portulaca oleracea 35
Black raspberry Rubus occidentalis 33
Hemp Cannabis sativa 19
Canola   9[94] – 11

Table 2. ALA content as the percentage of the whole food.[94][96]

Common name Linnaean name % ALA
Flaxseed Linum usitatissimum 18.1
Butternuts Juglans cinerea 8.7
Hempseed Cannabis sativa 8.7
Persian walnuts Juglans regia 6.3
Pecan nuts Carya illinoinensis 0.6
Hazel nuts Corylus avellana 0.1

Flaxseed (or linseed) (Linum usitatissimum) and its oil are perhaps the most widely available botanical source of the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Flaxseed oil consists of approximately 55% ALA, which makes it six times richer than most fish oils in omega-3 fatty acids.[97] A portion of this is converted by the body to EPA and DHA, though the actual converted percentage may differ between men and women.[98]

100 g of the leaves of Purslane contains 300–400 mg ALA.[99]

In 2013 Rothamsted Research in the UK reported they had developed a genetically modified form of the plant Camelina that produced EPA and DHA. Oil from the seeds of this plant contained on average 11% EPA and 8% DHA in one development and 24% EPA in another.[100][101]


Eggs produced by hens fed a diet of greens and insects contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than those produced by chickens fed corn or soybeans.[102] In addition to feeding chickens insects and greens, fish oils may be added to their diets to increase the omega-3 fatty acid concentrations in eggs.[103]

The addition of flax and canola seeds to the diets of chickens, both good sources of alpha-linolenic acid, increases the omega-3 content of the eggs, predominantly DHA.[104]

The addition of green algae or seaweed to the diets boosts the content of DHA and EPA content, which are the forms of omega-3 approved by the FDA for medical claims. A common consumer complaint is "Omega-3 eggs can sometimes have a fishy taste if the hens are fed marine oils."[105]


Omega 3 fatty acids are formed in the chloroplasts of green leaves and algae. While seaweeds and algae are the source of omega 3 fatty acids present in fish, grass is the source of omega 3 fatty acids present in grass fed animals.[106] When cattle are taken off omega 3 fatty acid rich grass and shipped to a feedlot to be fattened on omega 3 fatty acid deficient grain, they begin losing their store of this beneficial fat. Each day that an animal spends in the feedlot, the amount of omega 3 fatty acids in its meat is diminished.[107]

The omega-6-to-omega-3 ratio of grass-fed beef is about 2:1, making it a more useful source of omega-3 than grain-fed beef, which usually has a ratio of 4:1.[63]

In a 2009 joint study by the USDA and researchers at Clemson University in South Carolina, grass-fed beef was compared with grain-finished beef. The researchers found that grass-finished beef is higher in moisture content, 42.5% lower total lipid content, 54% lower in total fatty acids, 54% higher in beta-carotene, 288% higher in vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), higher in the B-vitamins thiamin and riboflavin, higher in the minerals calcium, magnesium, and potassium, 193% higher in total omega-3s, 117% higher in CLA (cis-9 trans-11, which is a potential cancer fighter), 90% higher in vaccenic acid (which can be transformed into CLA), lower in the saturated fats linked with heart disease, and has a healthier ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (1.65 vs 4.84). Protein and cholesterol content were equal.[63]

In most countries, commercially available lamb is typically grass-fed, and thus higher in omega-3 than other grain-fed or grain-finished meat sources. In the United States, lamb is often finished (i.e., fattened before slaughter) with grain, resulting in lower omega-3.[108]

The omega-3 content of chicken meat may be enhanced by increasing the animals' dietary intake of grains high in omega-3, such as flax, chia, and canola.[109]

Kangaroo meat is also a source of omega-3, with fillet and steak containing 74 mg per 100 g of raw meat.[110]

Mammalian brains and eyes

The brains and eyes of mammals are extremely rich in DHA as well as other omega-3 fatty acids.[111] DHA is a major structural component of the mammalian brain, and is in fact the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in the brain.[112]

Seal oil

Seal oil is a source of EPA, DPA, and DHA. According to Health Canada, it helps to support the development of the brain, eyes, and nerves in children up to 12 years of age.[113] However, like all seal products, it is not allowed for import into the European Union.[114]

Other sources

The microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii and Schizochytrium are rich sources of DHA but not EPA, and can be produced commercially in bioreactors.[citation needed]

Oil from brown algae (kelp) is a source of EPA.[115]

In 2006 the Journal of Dairy Science published a study entitled, "The Linear Relationship between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties". The study found that butter made from the milk of grass-fed cows contains substantially more CLA, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and omega-3 fatty acids than butter made from the milk of cows that have limited access to pasture.[116]


  1. "Related terms". Omega-3 fatty acids, fish oil, alpha-linolenic acid. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  2. Scorletti, E; Byrne, CD (2013). "Omega-3 fatty acids, hepatic lipid metabolism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.". Annual review of nutrition 33: 231–48. PMID 23862644. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health: Fact Sheet for Health Professionals". US National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  4. PMID 16829066 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  5. PMID 22388930 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  6. PMID 17453926 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  7. 7.0 7.1 Evangelos C. Rizos, MD, PhD; Evangelia E. Ntzani, MD, PhD; Eftychia Bika, MD; Michael S. Kostapanos, MD; Moses S. Elisaf, MD, PhD, FASA, FRSH (September 2012). "Association Between Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Risk of Major Cardiovascular Disease Events A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA 308 (10): 1024–1033. doi:10.1001/2012.jama.11374. PMID 22968891. 
  8. Sala-Vila, A; Calder, PC (October–November 2011). "Update on the relationship of fish intake with prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers". Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 51 (9): 855–71. doi:10.1080/10408398.2010.483527. PMID 21888535. 
  9. MacLean, CH; Newberry, SJ; Mojica, WA; Khanna, P; Issa, AM; Suttorp, MJ; Lim, YW; Traina, SB; Hilton, L; Garland, R; Morton, SC (2006-01-25). "Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review.". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (4): 403–15. doi:10.1001/jama.295.4.403. PMID 16434631. 
  10. MacLean, Catherine H. et al. (2006). "Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Risk". JAMA 295 (4): 403–415. doi:10.1001/jama.295.4.403. PMID 16434631. Retrieved 2006-07-07. 
  11. Lee Hooper et al. (2006). "Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review". BMJ 332 (7544): 752–760. doi:10.1136/bmj.38755.366331.2F. PMID 16565093. PMC 1420708. Retrieved 2006-07-07. 
  12. "Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health". 
  13. Colomer R, Moreno-Nogueira JM, García-Luna PP et al. (May 2007). "N-3 fatty acids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature". Br. J. Nutr. 97 (5): 823–31. doi:10.1017/S000711450765795X. PMID 17408522. 
  14. Zheng, J.-S.; Hu, X.-J.; Zhao, Y.-M.; Yang, J.; Li, D. (27 June 2013). "Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies". BMJ 346 (jun27 5): f3706–f3706. doi:10.1136/bmj.f3706. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Heinze, VM; Actis, AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review". International journal of food sciences and nutrition 63 (1): 66–78. doi:10.3109/09637486.2011.598849. PMID 21762028. 
  16. Chua, Michael E.; Sio, Maria Christina D.; Sorongon, Mishell C.; Morales, Marcelino L. Jr. (May–June 2013). "The relevance of serum levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis". Canadian Urological Association Journal 7 (5–6): E333–E343. doi:10.5489/cuaj.1056. PMID 23766835. 
  17. Kwak, SM; Myung, SK; Lee, YJ; Seo, HG; for the Korean Meta-analysis Study, Group (2012-04-09). "Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements (Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid) in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-analysis of Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials". Archives of Internal Medicine 172 (9): 686–94. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.262. PMID 22493407. 
  18. Kotwal, Sradha; David Sullivan, Vlado Perkovic, Bruce Neal (18 September 2012). "Omega 3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Outcomes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5 (6): 808–18. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.112.966168. PMID 23110790. 
  19. Delgado-Lista, J; Perez-Martinez, P; Lopez-Miranda, J; Perez-Jimenez, F (June 2012). "Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review". The British journal of nutrition 107 Suppl 2: S201–13. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001596. PMID 22591894. 
  20. Pharmacy & Therapeutics (May, 2008) "Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters (Lovaza) For Severe Hypertriglyceridemia"
  21. Cabo, J; Alonso, R; Mata, P (June 2012). "Omega-3 fatty acids and blood pressure". The British journal of nutrition 107 Suppl 2: S195–200. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001584. PMID 22591893. 
  22. von Schacky C. (March 2003). "The role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease". Curr. Atheroscler. Rep. 5 (2): 139–45. doi:10.1007/s11883-003-0086-y. PMID 12573200. 
  23. Morris, Martha C.; Sacks, Frank; Rosner, Bernard (1993). "Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials". Circulation 88 (2): 523–533. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.88.2.523. PMID 8339414. 
  24. Mori, Trevor A.; Bao, Danny Q.; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B.; Beilin, Lawrence J. (1993). "Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans". Hypertension 34 (2): 253–260. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.34.2.253. PMID 10454450. 
  25. Harris, William S. (1997). "n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies". Am J Clin Nutr 65 (5 Sup.): 1645S–1654S. PMID 9129504. 
  26. Sanders, T.A.B.; Oakley, F.R.; Miller, G.J.; Mitropoulos, K.A.; Crook, D.; Oliver, M.F. (1997). "Influence of n-6 versus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diets low in saturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and hemostatic factors". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 17 (12): 3449–3460. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.17.12.3449. PMID 9437192. 
  27. Davidson MH, Stein EA, Bays HE, Maki KC, Doyle RT, Shalwitz RA, Ballantyne CM, Ginsberg HN (July 2007). "Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to Simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: An 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study". Clin Ther. 29 (7): 1354–1367. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2007.07.018. PMID 17825687. 
  28. Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. (March 2002). "n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Am J Med 112 (4): 298–304. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(01)01114-7. PMID 11893369. 
  29. Wang, C; Harris, WS; Chung, M; Lichtenstein, AH; Balk, EM; Kupelnick, B; Jordan, HS; Lau, J (July 2006). "n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review". The American journal of clinical nutrition 84 (1): 5–17. PMID 16825676. 
  30. Iso, H.; Rexrode, K.M.; Stampfer, M.J.; Manson, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Hennekens, C.H.; Willett, W.C. (2001). "Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women". JAMA 285 (3): 304–312. doi:10.1001/jama.285.3.304. PMID 11176840. 
  31. Wall R, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C (2010). "Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids". Nutr Rev 68 (5): 280–9. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00287.x. PMID 20500789. 
  32. Miles, EA; Calder, PC (June 2012). "Influence of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune function and a systematic review of their effects on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis.". The British journal of nutrition 107 Suppl 2: S171–84. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001560. PMID 22591891. 
  33. "Herbal Remedies, Supplements and Acupuncture for Arthritis". American College of Rheumatology.,_Supplements_and_Acupuncture_for_Arthritis/. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  34. "Rheumatoid Arthritis and Complementary Health Approaches". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L. (2005). "Novel treatments for autistic spectrum disorders". Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 11 (2): 131–142. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20062. PMID 15977319. 
  36. Richardson, Alexandra J. (2006). "Omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD and related neurodevelopmental disorders". Int Rev Psychiatry 18 (2): 155–172. doi:10.1080/09540260600583031. PMID 16777670. 
  37. Gillies, D; Sinn, JKh; Lad, SS; Leach, MJ; Ross, MJ (July 11, 2012). "Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 7: CD007986. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007986.pub2. PMID 22786509. 
  38. Tan, ML; Ho, JJ; Teh, KH (December 12, 2012). "Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 12: CD009398. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009398.pub2. PMID 23235675. 
  39. Ortega, RM; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; López-Sobaler, AM (June 2012). "Effects of omega 3 fatty acids supplementation in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders.". The British journal of nutrition 107 Suppl 2: S261–70. doi:10.1017/S000711451200164X. PMID 22591900. 
  40. Bloch, MH; Qawasmi, A (October 2011). "Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis.". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 50 (10): 991–1000. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.008. PMID 21961774. 
  41. Secher, NJ (2007). "Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?". Journal of perinatal medicine 35 Suppl 1: S25–7. doi:10.1515/JPM.2007.033. PMID 17302537. 
  42. Jensen, Craig L (2006). "Effects of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation". Am J Clin Nutr 83 (6): 1452–1457. ISSN 0002-9165. 
  43. Perica, MM; Delas, I (August 2011). "Essential fatty acids and psychiatric disorders". Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 26 (4): 409–25. doi:10.1177/0884533611411306. PMID 21775637. 
  44. Montgomery, P; Richardson, AJ (2008-04-16). Montgomery, Paul. ed. "Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2): CD005169. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005169.pub2. PMID 18425912. 
  45. Hegarty, B; Parker, G (January 2013). "Fish oil as a management component for mood disorders - an evolving signal". Current Opinion in Psychiatry 26 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835ab4a7. PMID 23108232. 
  46. Sanhueza, C; Ryan, L; Foxcroft, DR (October 18, 2012). "Diet and the risk of unipolar depression in adults: systematic review of cohort studies". Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association 26 (1): 56–70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-277X.2012.01283.x. PMID 23078460. 
  47. Cederholm T, Palmblad J (March 2010). "Are omega-3 fatty acids options for prevention and treatment of cognitive decline and dementia?". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 13 (2): 150–155. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328335c40b. PMID 20019606. 
  48. Mazereeuw G, Lanctôt KL, Chau SA, Swardfager W, Herrmann N (2012). "Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis". Neurobiol Aging 33 (7): e17–29. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.12.014. PMID 22305186. 
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 49.7 49.8 Lands, William E.M. (1992). "Biochemistry and physiology of n–3 fatty acids". FASEB Journal (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) 6 (8): 2530–2536. PMID 1592205. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  50. Bergstrom, Danielson, Klenberg, and Samuelsson (November 1964). "The Enzymatic Conversion of Essential fatty Acids into Prostaglandins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 239 (11): PC4006–PC4008. 
  51. Bain, S. (2010). "Achieving optimal omega-3 fatty acid status in the vegan population". Beloit, WI: Biochemistry Program. 
  52. Gerster H (1998). "Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?". Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 68 (3): 159–173. PMID 9637947. 
  53. Brenna JT (March 2002). "Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 5 (2): 127–132. doi:10.1097/00075197-200203000-00002. PMID 11844977. 
  54. Burdge GC, Calder PC (September 2005). "Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults". Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 45 (5): 581–597. doi:10.1051/rnd:2005047. PMID 16188209. 
  55. Oregon State University Micronutrient Information Center: Essential Fatty Acids-Metabolism and Bioavailability
  56. "Conversion Efficiency of ALA to DHA in Humans". Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  57. Goyens, Petra LL et al. (1 July 2006). "Conversion of alpha-linolenic acid in humans is influenced by the absolute amounts of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in the diet and not by their ratio". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (1): 44–53. PMID 16825680. Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  58. Okuyama H (2001). "High n-6 to n-3 ratio of dietary fatty acids rather than serum cholesterol as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease". Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 103 (6): 418–422. doi:10.1002/1438-9312(200106)103:6<418::AID-EJLT418>3.0.CO;2-#. 
  59. Griffin BA (2008). "How relevant is the ratio of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to cardiovascular disease risk? Evidence from the OPTILIP study". Current Opinion in Lipidology 19 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2e2a8. PMID 18196988. 
  60. Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Siscovick DS, Rimm EB., D; Ascherio, A; Hu, FB; Stampfer, MJ; Willett, WC; Siscovick, DS; Rimm, EB (2005). "Interplay Between Different Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men". Circulation 111 (2): 157–64. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000152099.87287.83. PMID 15630029. PMC 1201401. 
  61. Willett WC, WC (2007). "The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease". J Cardiovasc Med 8: Suppl 1:S42–5. doi:10.2459/01.JCM.0000289275.72556.13. PMID 17876199. 
  62. Tribole, E.F.; Thompson, RL; Harrison, RA; Summerbell, CD; Ness, AR; Moore, HJ; Worthington, HV; Durrington, PN et al. (2006). "Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review". BMJ 332 (7544): 752–760. doi:10.1136/bmj.38755.366331.2F. PMID 16565093. PMC 1420708. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  63. 63.0 63.1 63.2 S.K. Duckett et al; Neel, J. P. S.; Fontenot, J. P.; Clapham, W. M. (2009). "Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. Tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin and cholesterol content". Journal of Animal Science 87 (9): 2961–70. doi:10.2527/jas.2009-1850. PMID 19502506. 
  64. Lands, WEM (2005). Fish, Omega 3 and human health. American Oil Chemists' Society. ISBN 978-1-893997-81-3. 
  65. Simopoulos, Artemis P. (October 2002). "The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56 (8): 365–379. doi:10.1016/S0753-3322(02)00253-6. PMID 12442909. 
  66. Daley, C. A.; Abbott, A.; Doyle, P.; Nader, G.; and Larson, S. (2004). A literature review of the value-added nutrients found in grass-fed beef products. California State University, Chico (College of Agriculture). Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  67. Simopoulos, AP (September 2003). "Importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids: evolutionary aspects". World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 92: 1–174. doi:10.1159/000073788. ISBN 3-8055-7640-4. PMID 14579680. 
  68. Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem Jr N (2000). "Workshop Statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids". Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63 (3): 119–121. doi:10.1054/plef.2000.0176. PMID 10991764. 
  69. PMID 16841858 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  70. Martina Bavec; Franc Bavec (2006). Organic Production and Use of Alternative Crops. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 178. ISBN 1-4200-1742-X. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  71. Erasmus, Udo, Fats and Oils. 1986. Alive books, Vancouver, ISBN 0-920470-16-5 p. 263 (round-number ratio within ranges given.)
  72. "Oil, vegetable, corn, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking; USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21". Conde Nast. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  73. Dusheck J (October 1985). "Fish, Fatty Acids, and Physiology". Science News. 128 (16): 241–256. 
  74. Holman RT (February 1998). "The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health". J. Nutr. 128 (2 Suppl): 427S–433S. PMID 9478042. 
  75. United States Food and Drug Administration (September 8, 2004). "FDA announces qualified health claims for omega-3 fatty acids". Press release. Retrieved 2006-07-10. 
  76. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Summary Table of Biological Role Claims Table 8-2.
  77. "Fish, Levels of Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids". American Heart Association. Retrieved October 6, 2010. 
  78. Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; William S. Harris, Lawrence J. Appel (2002). "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease". Circulation 106 (21): 2747–2757. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000038493.65177.94. PMID 12438303. 
  79. 79.00 79.01 79.02 79.03 79.04 79.05 79.06 79.07 79.08 79.09 79.10 79.11 79.12 79.13 79.14 79.15 79.16 "Omega-3 Centre". Omega-3 sources. Omega-3 Centre. Archived from the original on 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-07-27. 
  80. 80.0 80.1 80.2 Food and Nutrition Board (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes For Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. pp. 423; 770. ISBN 0-309-08537-3. 
  81. "Product Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA) from Fish/Marine Oils". 2005-03-15. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  82. Bent S, Bertoglio K, Hendren RL (August 2009). "Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review". J Autism Dev Disord 39 (8): 1145–54. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0724-5. PMID 19333748. 
  83. International Fish Oils Standard
  84. Kris-Etherton, PM, Harris, WS, Appel LJ (2002). "Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 acids and cardiovascular disease". Circulation 106 (21): 2747–2757. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000038493.65177.94. PMID 12438303. 
  85. Falk-Petersen, S. et al. (1998). "Lipids and fatty acids in ice algae and phytoplankton from the Marginal Ice Zone in the Barents Sea". Polar Biology 20 (1): 41–47. doi:10.1007/s003000050274. Template:INIST. ISSN 0722-4060. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 Innis, SM; Rioux, FM; Auestad, N; Ackman, RG (September 1995). "Marine and freshwater fish oil varying in arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids differ in their effects on organ lipids and fatty acids in growing rats.". The Journal of nutrition 125 (9): 2286–93. PMID 7666244. 
  87. Lawson, L.D.; Hughes, B.G. (1988). "Absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish oil triacylglycerols or fish oil ethyl esters co-ingested with a high-fat meal". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 156 (2): 960–963. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(88)80937-9. PMID 2847723. 
  88. Beckermann, B.; Beneke, M.; Seitz, I. (1990). "Comparative bioavailability of eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexaenoic acid from triglycerides, free fatty acids and ethyl esters in volunteers" (in German). Arzneimittel-Forschung 40 (6): 700–704. PMID 2144420. 
  89. Ulven SM; Kirkhus, B; Lamglait, A; Basu, S; Elind, E; Haider, T; Berge, K; Vik, H et al. (January 2011). "Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers". Lipids 46 (1): 37–46. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3490-4. PMID 21042875. 
  90. Horner, Hayden. "Calamari: a source of omega-3". Health 365. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  91. Editor, Health. "Sustainability of calamari oil". Health 365. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  92. "Seed Oil Fatty Acids - SOFA Database Retrieval".  In German. Google translation
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 DeFilippis, Andrew P.. "Understanding omega-3's" (PDF). Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. 
  96. Wilkinson, Jennifer. "Nut Grower's Guide: The Complete Handbook for Producers and Hobbyists" (PDF). Retrieved 21 October 2007. 
  97. Thomas Bartram (September 2002). Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine: The Definitive Guide to the Herbal Treatments of Diseases. Da Capo Press. pp. 271. ISBN 978-1-56924-550-7. 
  98. PMID 22089435 (PubMed)
    Citation will be completed automatically in a few minutes. Jump the queue or expand by hand
  99. Simopoulos, A. P.; Norman, H. A.; Gillaspy, J. E.; Duke, J. A.; (August 1992). "Common purslane: a source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants". J Am Coll Nutr 11 (4): 374–382. PMID 1354675. 
  100. doi:10.1111/tpj.12378
    This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand
  101. Coghlan, Andy (4 January 2014) "Designed plant oozes vital fish oils" New Scientist, volume 221, issue 2950, page 12
  102. "How Omega-6s Usurped Omega-3s In US Diet". 
  103. Trebunová, A.; Vasko, L.; Svedová, M.; Kasteľ, R.; Tucková, M.; Mach, P. (July 2007). "The influence of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids feeding on composition of fatty acids in fatty tissues and eggs of laying hens". Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 114 (7): 275–279. PMID 17724936. 
  104. Cherian, G. Effect of feeding full fat flax and canola seeds to laying hens on the fatty acids composition of eggs, embryos, and newly hatched chicks.
  105. Sterling, Colin (2010-06-03). "Washington Post's Egg Taste Test Says Homegrown And Factory Eggs Taste The Same [UPDATED, POLL]". Retrieved 2011-01-03. 
  106. Garton, G. A. (1960). "Fatty Acid Composition of the Lipids of Pasture Grasses". Nature 187 (4736): 511. doi:10.1038/187511b0. 
  107. Duckett, S. K., D. G. Wagner, et al. (1993). "Effects of time on feed on beef nutrient composition". J Anim Sci 71 (8): 2079–2088. PMID 8376232. 
  108. "Specially Labeled Lamb". 
  109. Azcona, J.O., Schang, M.J., Garcia, P.T., Gallinger, C., R. Ayerza (h), and Coates, W. (2008). "Omega-3 enriched broiler meat: The influence of dietary alpha-linolenic omega-3 fatty acid sources on growth, performance and meat fatty acid composition". Canadian Journal of Animal Science 88 (2): 257–269. doi:10.4141/CJAS07081. 
  110. "Gourment Game - Amazing Nutrition Facts". 
  111. "DHA in Brain and Retina Structure". 
  112. "Nutrition for the Brain". 
  113. "Natural Health Product Monograph - Seal Oil". Health Canada. June 22, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  114. European Parliament (9 November 2009). "MEPs adopt strict conditions for the placing on the market of seal products in the European Union". Hearings. European Parliament. Retrieved 12 March 2010. 
  115. Vincent JT van Ginneken, Johannes PFG Helsper, Willem de Visser, Herman van Keulen and Willem A Brandenburg (2011). "Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas". Lipids in Health and Disease 10 (104): 104. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-104. PMID 21696609. 
  116. Couvreur, S.; Hurtaud, C.; Lopez, C.; Delaby, L.; Peyraud, J.-L. (June 2006). "The Linear Relationship Between the Proportion of Fresh Grass in the Cow Diet, Milk Fatty Acid Composition, and Butter Properties". Journal of Dairy Science 89 (6): 1956–69. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72263-9. PMID 16702259. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 

Further reading

External links